Prosthetic memory: Re-creating the experience of trauma in Iñárritu’s 11'09''01

Shuri Mariasih Gietty Tambunan

Abstract


9/11 will always be a traumatic experience not only for Americans but also for the rest of the world. This trauma has been re-articulated in a number of mass culture or popular culture products, such as novels or films. As argued by Landsberg (2004), mass culture could be used to attract the public in making sense of history, memory, politics and identity, including traumatic moments. In this article, the chosen case, a short film by Iñárritu’s entitled 11'09''01 shows how a cultural product intended for the masses has the potentials to change the structure of memory construction. The film has been criticized to be focusing on the traumatic aspect and do not highlight the heroic discourse, which was the most celebrated notion of the 9/11 tragedy. As the most experimental entry, this article argues that the short film among the others in the same project represents an effort to empathize with the pain felt on that day by utilizing ‘authentic’ materials, such as segments of media broadcasts from all over the world and recordings of the victims’ last phone calls to their loved ones. It also uses the images of people falling or jumping from the two towers leading into the ethical challenges for the cinematic documentation of a traumatic event, which will also be discussed in this article. The main method of analysis is textual analysis and Landsberg’s conceptualization of Prosthetic Memory is used to interpret the data. The article concludes that the short film could be seen as a Transferential Space in transferring memories of 9/11 to the audience who might not have experience it directly. 

Keywords


September 11, Trauma, Prosthetic Memory, Ethics

Full Text:

PDF

References


’09”01: September 11. (2002). Dir. Samira Makhmalbaf, Claude Lelouch, Youssef Chahine, Danis Tanovic, Idrissa Ouedraogo, Ken Loach, Alejandro Gonzalez Iñárritu, Amos Gitaï, Mira Nair, Sean Penn and Shohei Imamura. Artificial Eye.

Barthes, R. (1981). Camera Lucida: Reflection on Photography. New York: Hill & Wang.

Birkenstein, J., Froula, A., & Randell, K. (Eds.). (2010). Reframing 9/11: film, popular culture and the" war on terror". New York: Bloomsbury Publishing USA.

Bordwell, D. & Thompson, K. (2012). Film Art: An Introduction 10th Editio. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.

Clemente, M. C. (2011). Representing 9/11: Alejandro González Iñárritu’s short film in 11'09" 01: September 11. E-rea. Revue électronique d’études sur le monde anglophone, (9.1).

Junod, T. (2008). The Falling Man, (2008, September 11), Esquire.

Kılıçbay, B. (2001). 11-09-01: 11 Different Ways of Seeing or not Seeing 9/11, Journal of American Studies of Turkey, 14: 111-115

Landsberg, A. (2004). Prosthetic Memory: The Transformation of American Remembrance in the Age of Mass Culture. New York: Columbia University Press.

Singer, H. (2006). The Falling Man (A Documentary).

Turner, G. (2003). Film as Social Practice 3rd Edition. London and New York: Routledge.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30659/e.4.2.226-235

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

EduLite Journal of English Education, Literature and Culture is published by Language and Communication Science Faculty (former Language Faculty), Universitas Islam Sultan Agung (UNISSULA), Indonesia, in collaboration with Persaudaraan Dosen Republik Indonesia (PDRI).

Contact us: EduLite Journal of English Education, Literature and CultureJl. Raya Kaligawe Km.4, PO BOX 1054/SM Semarang 50112. Email: reviews_edulite@unissula.ac.id.