Segmental phonemic system of Riau Malay subdialect Kepulauan as local knowledge in Batam

Ambalegin Ambalegin, Tomi Arianto


Malay dialect has a specific final sound /ɑ/ as /ə/ but not all final sound /ɑ/ is pronounced as /ə/. The final sound /r/ is dropped down and the sound /u/ after the letter <r> is pronounced as /ɒ/ in some particular words. This phonemic system must be preserved and developed as a local knowledge. Modality change of consciousness happens to the Malay, and Indonesian becomes elitist and leaves the egalitarian Malay. This descriptive qualitative research concerned to the phonemic features and comprehensive picture of Malay contemporary sounds, and Malay vowels and consonants with the pertinent articulatory elements in Batam. Observation method with participatory technique involved in data collection taken from Kampong Tua Nongsa, Sanggau, Tanjung Uma, and Tanjung Riau. The theory to support the analysis was taken from Finegan and Low’s theories in term of phonological and phonetic approach and supported by Kelly, McMahon, Roach, and Yule’s theories. It is found that the letter <a> is pronounced as /ə/ in particular place. And <u> is pronounced as /ɒ/ in particular place. /Ɍ/ in Malay is different from /r/ in Indonesian and /ʁ/ in English as /Ɍ/ is produced by uvula. The final consonant-closed sound <k> and <l> are not sounded as they are represented by /Ɂ/. Letter <h> is not pronounced as /h/ in the final <h> consonant-closed syllable sound. /f/, /χ/, /ʃ/and /z/, all these fricative sounds do not appear in Malay. The Malay pronounced them as /p/ for /f/ in maaf, /k/ for /χ/ in ikhlas, /s/ for /ʃ/ in syukur, and /ʝ/ for /z/ in izin. Syllable sound ends with letter <b> or <d> is not pronounced with end /b/ or /d/ but it pronounces with end /p/ or /t/ such sebab as /sebʌp/, sabtu as /sʌp/, wujud as /wʊʝʊt/, and sujud as /sʊʝʊt/.


Malay vowels and consonants; phonological and phonetic approach

Full Text:



Akmal, A. (2015). Kebudayaan melayu Riau (pantun, syair, gurindam). Risalah, 26(4), 159–165. Retrieved from

Ambalegin, & Arianto, T. (2018). English vowels and consonants mispronunciation of the seventh president of Republic of Indonesia in his official English speeches and its influencing factors. Langauge Literacy , Journal of Linguistics, Literature, and Language Teaching, 2(2), 113–128.

Aslan. (2017). Nilai-nilai kearifan lokal dalam budaya pantang larang suku Melayu Sambas. Ilmu Usuluhudin, 16(1), 11–20.

Barman, B. (2009). A contrastive analysis of English and Bangla phonemics. The Dhaka University Journal of Linguistics, 2(4), 19–42.

Bbi/JPC. (2015, April). Kearifan lokal tetap dijaga dalam pengembangan Batam sebagai kota cerdas. Dinamika Kepri News. Retrieved from

Brata, I. B. (2016). Kearifan budaya lokal perekat identitas bangsa. Jurnal Bakti Saraswati, 5(1), 9–16. Retrieved from

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research; planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative qualitative research (4th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education Inc.

Dahlan, A. (2015). Sejarah Melayu (Second Ed.). Jakarta: PT. Gramedia Jakarta.

Effendy, C. (2014). Peranan sastra dan bahasa Melayu dalam membangun karakter bangsa. Jentera, 2(3), 126–134.

Finegan, E. (2015). Language; Its structure and use (7th ed.). Stamford: Cengage Learning.

Kartikasari, D., Oramahi, H. A., & Idham, M. (2017). Kearifan lokal masyarakat kelurahan Pasiran dalam pengelolaan hutan kota Gunung Sari kota Singkawang. Jurnal Hutan Lestari, 5(2), 375–381. Retrieved from

Kelly, G. (2004). How to teach pronunciation. England: Pearson Education Limited. Retrieved from

Kohn, H. (1982). Nationalism: Its meaning and history. Florida: Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company, Inc.

Ladefoged, P. (2006). A course of phonetics (5th ed.). Boston: Thomson Wadsworth.

Leech, G. N. (2016). Principles of pragmatics. United Kingdom: Routledge.

Low, E. L. (2015). Pronunciation for English as an international language (1st ed.). New York: Routledge Publishers.

Mahayana, S. (2009). Perkembangan bahasa Indonesia—Melayu di Indonesia dalam konteks sistem pendidikan. Insania, 14(3), 395–424.

Nuryanto, T. (2015). Menurunnya penutur bahasa Indonesia sebagai lingua franca. Journal Indonesian Language Education and Literature, 2(2), 4–12.

Odden, D. (2005). Introducing phonology. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Roach, P. (2012). English phonetics and phonology; A practical course (4th ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Skandera, P., & Burleigh, P. (2005). A manual of English phonetics and phonology. Germany: Gunter Narr Verlag Tubingen.

Sudaryanto. (2015). Metode dan aneka teknik analisis bahasa. Yogyakarta: Duta Wacana University Press.

Tambak, S., & Sukenti, D. (2017). Implementasi budaya Melayu dalam kurikulum pendidikan Madrasah ibtidaiyah di Riau. Miqot, XLI(2), 362–383. Retrieved from

Yule, G. (2014). The study of language (5th ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.


Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

EduLite Journal of English Education, Literature and Culture is published by Language and Communication Science Faculty (former Language Faculty), Universitas Islam Sultan Agung (UNISSULA), Indonesia, in collaboration with Persaudaraan Dosen Republik Indonesia (PDRI).

Contact us: EduLite Journal of English Education, Literature and CultureJl. Raya Kaligawe Km.4, PO BOX 1054/SM Semarang 50112, Central Java, Indonesia. Email: