The influence of systemic racism on quarter-life crisis in The Autobiography of Malcolm X (as told to Alex Haley)

Bhakti Satrio Nugroho, Dwi Septi Aryani

Abstract


This paper aims to analyze the influence of systemic racism on quarter-life crisis, experienced by Malcolm X, as seen in The Autobiography of Malcolm X (As Told to Alex Haley). Its emphasis is to find the relation between racial segregation in American society and its influence on quarter-life crisis, which is a psychological crisis of uncertainty, self-insecurity and identity confusion, occurs during emerging adulthood. Therefore, by applying a qualitative method, this research is under Post-Nationalist American Studies and psychosocial approach as an integrated paradigm which accommodates the inter-disciplinary aspects of “self and society”. The analysis showed that racial segregation, in the field of education and job occupation, is a form of systemic racism which influences Malcolm X’s mental wellness as an emerging adult African-American. He experiences Robinson’s phases of quarter-life crisis which are locked in, separation/time-out, exploration and rebuilding. In fact, racial segregation in this narrative works as “a function of blocked opportunities” which disallows young African-Americans to develop their own competencies and to achieve their “American Dream’. However, in the development of his quarter-life crisis, Malcolm X managed to rebuild his new long-term commitment contributing to the reconstruction of his adult identity as an African-American Muslim activist.


Keywords


quarter-life crisis; racism; segregation

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aloud, A., & Alsulayyim, M. (2016). Discrimination against black students. http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED569922.

Aqeeli, A. (2020). The role of Malcolm X’s speeches in solidifying his autobiography. Language Circle: Journal of Language and Literature, 14 (2), 130-136. https://doi.org/10.15294/lc.v14i2.22664.

Arnett, J.J. (2004). Emerging adulthood: The winding road from the late teens through the twenties. Oxford University Press.

Bhabha, H. (2004). The location of culture. Routledge.

Brondolo, E., ver Halen, B., Libby, D., & Pencille, M. (2011). “Racism as a Psychosocial Stressor”, in R. Contrada and A. Baum (Eds). The Handbook of Stress Science: Biology, Psychology and Health (pp. 167-185). Springer Publishing Company, LLC.

Creswell, J. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches (2nd Ed.). SAGE Publications, Inc.

Curthoys, A., & Docker, J. (2008). Defining genocide, in D. Stone (Eds), The Historiography of Genocide (pp. 9-41). Palgrave Macmillan.

Dubek, L. (2014). “The Autobiography of Malcolm X and the African American quest for freedom and literacy, in P. Phillips (Eds), Prison Narratives from Boethius to Zana (pp. 195-214). Palgrave Macmillan

Erikson, E. (1977). Childhood and society. Paladin Grafton Books.

Feagin, J. R. (2006). Systemic racism: A theory of oppression. Routledge

Feagin, J. R., & Elias, S. (2013). Rethinking racial formation theory: A systemic racism critique, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 36 (6), 931-960, https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2012.669839.

Finkelman, P. (2012). The legal understanding of slavery: From the historical to the contemporary. Oxford Scholarship.

Frosh, S. (2003). Psychosocial studies and psychology: Is a critical approach emerging? Human Relations, 56, 1547-1567, https://doi.org/10.1177/00187267035612005.

Gillespie, A. (2005). Malcolm X and his autobiography: Identity development and self-narration. Culture & Psychology, 11 (1), 77–88. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354067X05050746.

Habibie, A., Syakarofath, N, & Anwar, Z. (2019). Peran religiusitas terhadap Quarter-Life Crisis (QLC) pada mahasiswa. Gadjah Mada Journal of Psychology, 5 (2), 129-138. https://doi.org/10.22146/Gamajop.48948.

Haley, A. (1973). The Autobiography of Malcolm X: as Told to Alex Haley. The Ballantine Publishing Group.

Hartmann, D., & Venkatesh, S.A. (2002). American project: The rise and fall of a modern Ghetto. Harvard University Press.

Leedy, P. (1985). Practical research. Macmillan Publishing Company.

Nation of Islam. (n.d). A brief history on origin of nation of Islam. https://www.noi.org/noi-history/.

Mahsun. M. (2005). Metode penelitian bahasa: Tahapan strategi, metode, dan tekniknya. PT. Raja Grafindo Persada.

Mannoni, O. (1956). Prospero and Caliban: The psychology of colonization. Translated by P. Powesland. Richard Clay and Company, Ltd.

Peterson, R., & Krivo, L. (1993). Racial segregation and black urban homicide. Social Forces, 71 (4), 1001-1026. https://doi.org/10.1093/sf/71.4.1001.

Robbins, A., & Wilner, A. (2001). Quarterlife crisis: The unique challenges of life in your twenties. MFJ Books.

Robinson, O., Wright, R.T., & Smith, J. (2013). The holistic phase model of early adult crisis. Journal of Adult Development, 20 (1), 27-37. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10804-013-9153-y.

Rothstein, R. (2013). For public schools, segregation then, segregation since: Education and the unfinished March. https://www.epi.org/publication/unfinished-march-public-school-segregation/.

Rowe, J. (2000). Post-nationalist American studies. University of California Press.

Sampson, R. J., & Wilson, W.J. (1995). Toward a theory of race, crime, and urban inequality. In J. Hagan and R. D. Peterson (Eds), Crime and Inequality (pp. 37–54). Stanford University Press.

Schauer, F. (1997). Generality and equality. Law and Philosophy. 16 (3), 97- 279. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-015-8977-2_4.

Schill, M., & Wachter, S. (2001). Principles to guide housing policy at the beginning of the millennium. Cityscape: A journal of Policy Development and Research, 5 (2), 5-19. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20868512.

White, G. (2016). Searching for the Origins of the Racial Wage Disparity in Jim Crow America. https://www.theatlantic.com/bussiness/archive/2016/02/the-origins-of-the-racial-wage-gap/461892/.

Woodward, K. (2015). Psychosocial studies: An introduction. Routledge.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30659/e.6.1.120-133

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Authors

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

EduLite Journal of English Education, Literature and Culture is published by Language and Communication Science Faculty (former Language Faculty), Universitas Islam Sultan Agung (UNISSULA), Indonesia, in collaboration with Persaudaraan Dosen Republik Indonesia (PDRI).

Contact us: EduLite Journal of English Education, Literature and CultureJl. Raya Kaligawe Km.4, PO BOX 1054/SM Semarang 50112, Central Java, Indonesia. Email: reviews_edulite@unissula.ac.id.