The Antifungal Effect of Kesum Leaf (Polygonum minus Huds) in Ethanol Extract on Microsporum gypseum

Josephine Johan Liauw, Syarifah Nurulyanti Rizki, Diana Natalia, Mahyarudin Mahyarudin


Introduction: Dermatophytosis or tinea is a disease found in the keratinized tissues caused by dermatophytes. The prolonged use of antifungal drugs has adverse effects on humans. Kesum leaves (Polygonum minus Huds) contains the secondary metabolite properties which can act as anti-fungi. Objective: This study aimed to determine the antifungal activity of ethanol extract of kesum leaves in inhibiting the Microsporum gypseum.
Methods: Phytochemical analysis was performed using a test tube method and thin layer chromatography. The antifungal activity test used a disc diffusion method with the extract concentrations of 5%, 10%, 20%, 40%, and 80%. Kesum leaves macerated using ethanol 96% solvent. Itraconazole 8µl/disk and DMSO4 were respectively used as positive and negative control.
Results: Phytochemical analysis on the ethanol extract of kesum leaves showed the secondary metabolite groups of flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, and saponins. Ethanol extract of kesum leaves did not form an inhibitory zone on the growth of Microsporum gypseum. Meanwhile in the positive control, in the form of itraconazole 8 µl/disk, the inhibition zone was formed around the disc with a mean value of 37.5 mm.
Conclusion: Ethanol extract of kesum leaves (Polygonum minus Huds) has no antifungal activity against the growth of Microsporum gypseum.


Antifungal; ethanol extract of kesum leaves (Polygonum minus Huds); Microsporum gypseum

Full Text:



Ahmad, R., Bunawan, H., Normah, M. N., & Baharum, S. N. (2016). Chemical composition in different tissues of Polygonum minus by using GC X GC-TOF MS and direct discrimination by multivariate analysis of fourier transform infrared spectroscopy data. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research, 8(12), 1986–1992.

Alves, T. M. D. A., Ribeiro, F. L., Kloos, H., & Zani, C. L. (2001). Polygodial, the Fungitoxic Component from the Brazilian Medicinal Plant Polygonum punctatum. Memorias Do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 96(6), 831–833.

Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan (BPOM). (2010). Acuan sediaan herbal volume ke-5. Direktorat Obat Asli Indonesia.

Baharum, S. N., Bunawan, H., Ghani, M. A., Wan Aida Wan Mustapha, & Noor, N. M. (2010). Analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil of Polygonum minus Huds. Using two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS). Molecules, 15(10), 7006–7015.

Derita, M. G., Leiva, M. L., & Zacchino, S. A. (2009). Influence of plant part, season of collection and content of the main active constituent, on the antifungal properties of Polygonum acuminatum Kunth. J Eth Pharm, 124, 377–383.

Derita, M., & Zacchino, S. (2011). Validation of the ethnopharmacological use of Polygonum persicaria for its antifungal properties. Natural Product Communications, 6(7), 931–933.

Dewi, S. (2018). Efek ekstrak etanol daun kesum (Polygonum minus Huds.) sebagai antifungi terhadap Trichophyton rubrum. Universitas Tanjungpura.

Drakensjö, I. T., & Chryssanthou, E. (2011). Epidemiology of dermatophyte infections in Stockholm, Sweden: A retrospective study from 2005-2009. Medical Mycology, 49(5), 484–488.

Gberikon, G. ., Adeoti, I. ., & Aondoackaa, A. . (2015). Effect of Ethanol and Aqueous Solutions as Extraction Solvents on Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity of Fruit and Stem Bark Extracts of Tetrapleura tetrapteraon Streptococcus salivarus and Streptococcus mutans. Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci., 4(5), 404–410.

Hanumanthappa, H., Sarojini, K., Shilpashree, P., & Muddapur, S. B. (2012). Clinicomycological study of 150 cases of dermatophytosis in a tertiary care hospital in South India. Indian Journal of Dermatology, 57, 322–3.

Hasan, M. F., Das, R., Khan, A., & Rahman, M. (2009). The Determination of Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Polygonum hydropiper (L.) Root Extract. Advances in Biological Research, 3(2), 53–56.

Ilagan, Y. ., Ilagan, F. M. ., & Ramos AP. (2015). Antifungal activity of some medicinal plants and their interactive effects with antibiotic on some species of Candida causing Candidiasis. In: Gnanamalar Sarojini Daniel E. (eds) Biology Education and Research in a Changing Planet. Springer.

Johnny, L., Yusuf, U. K., & Nulit, R. (2011). Antifungal activity of selected plant leaves crude extracts against a pepper anthracnose fungus, Colletotrichum capsici (Sydow) butler and bisby (Ascomycota: Phyllachorales). Afr J Biotechnol, 10, 4157–65.

Kandoli, F., Abijulu, J., & Leman, M. (2016). Uji daya hambat ekstrak daun durian (Durio zybethinus) terhadap pertumbuhan Candida albicans secara in vitro. Jurnal Ilmiah Farmasi UNSRAT, 5(1), 46–52.

Kurniawan, D. (2015). Uji aktivitas antijamur ekstrak etanol daun kelor (Moringa oleifera Lamk.) terhadap Candida albicans secara in vitro. Jurnal Mahasiswa PSPD FK Universitas Tanjungpura, 3(1), 21.

Lakshmipathy, D. T., & Kannabiran, K. (2010). Review on dermatomycosis: pathogenesis and treatment. Natural Science, 2(7), 726–731.

López, S. N., Furlan, R. L. E., & Zacchino, S. A. (2011). Detection of antifungal compounds in Polygonum ferrugineum Wedd . extracts by bioassay-guided fractionation . Some evidences of their mode of action. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 138, 633–636.

Lv, Q., Yan, L., & Jiang, Y. (2016). The synthesis, regulation and functions of sterols in Candida albicans: well known but still lots to learn. Virulence, 7(6), 649-59.

Maraki, S., & Mavromanolaki, V. E. (2016). Epidemiology of Dermatophytoses in Crete, Greece: a 5-year Survey. Medical Mycology Journal, 5, 69–75.

Melinda, T. (2018). Efek ekstrak etanol daun kesum (Polygonum minus Huds.) sebagai antifungi terhadap Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Universitas Tanjungpura.

Murdopo. (2014). Warta Ekspor Edisi September. Kementerian Perdagangan Republik Indonesia.

Nigam, P. K. (2015). Antifungal drugs and resistance: Current concepts. Our Dermatol Online, 6(2), 212–221.

Phatik, T., Das, J., Boruah, P., College, D., & Assam, T. (2014). Antifungal activity of Polyginum hydropiper and Solanum melangone against plant pathogenic fungi. Plant Archives, 14(1), 15–17.

Pietta, P. G., Gardana, C., & Pietta, A. M. (2002). Analytical methods for quality control of propolis. Fitoterapia, 73(1), 7-20.

Rosalim, V. V. (2018). Efek ekstrak etanol daun kesum (Polygonum minus Huds.) sebagai antifungi terhadap Microsporum canis. Universitas Tanjungpura.

Sagar, K., & Vidyasagar, G. M. (2013). Anti-dermatophytic activity of some traditionally used medicinal plants of North Karnataka Region. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 3(02), 77–83.

Sarika, G., Purva, A., Rahul, R., & Saksham, G. (2014). Prevalence of dermatophytic infection and determining sensitivity of diagnostic procedurs. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 6(3), 35-8.

Sei, Y. (2012). Epidemiological survey of dermatomycoses in Japan. Med Mycol J, 53, 185–192.

Sondakh, C. E. E. J., Pandaleke, T. A., & Mawu, F. O. (2016). Profil dermatofitosis di Poliklinik Kulit dan Kelamin RSUP Prof . Dr . R . D . Kandou Manado. Jurnal E-Clinic (ECl), 4(1), 1–7.

Wang, X., Hao, O., Wang, W., Ying, X., & Wang, H. (2010). Evaluation of the use of different solvents to extract the four main components of Yinqiaosan and their in vitro inhibitory effects on influenza-A virus. The Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences, 26(4), 182–191.

Widaty, S., & Budimulja, U. (2016). ‘Dermatofitosis’ dalam Menaldi, S.L., Bramono, K. & Indriatmi, W. Ilmu Penyakit Kulit dan Kelamin Edisi ke-7. Badan Penerbit FKUI.

Yaacob, K. B. (1990). Essential oil of Polygonum minus Huds. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 4, 167–72.


Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Indexed by:


Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at

stats View My Stats.