Alifya Fahira, Indra Hadikrishna, Lucky Riawan, Yurika Ambar Lita


Background: The third molars (M3) are the most frequently impacted teeth because they are the last to erupt, so they often don’t get enough space to erupt. The characteristics of impacted M3 teeth can be different for each person. This study aims to provide a description of maxillary M3 impaction based on age, sex, classification, treatment, and anesthesia in Bandung City population.
Method: This was a descriptive study using secondary data from medical records and panoramic radiographs at RSGM UNPAD with a purposive sampling technique. Determination of the characteristic impaction using a classification based on Archer, Shiller, Jung and Cho, and Killy and Kay, analyzed with ImageJ software by interobserver and intraobserver, and tested using Kappa statistics for reliability.
Result: There were 134 impacted teeth from 102 impacted patients with 67 females (66.34%) and most cases occurred in 17-25 years old (60.4%); Class B, 82 cases (60.9%); distoangular angulation, 76 cases (56.72%); Class 3, 76 cases (52.24%); and one fused roots, 83 cases (64.93%). The most common procedure performed was odontectomy (87.25%) with local anesthesia (63.73%)
Conclusion: Characteristics of upper M3 impaction in terms of position, angulation, and its relation to age and sex is needed for the diagnosis, so the management plan by the clinician is better and safer. Panoramic radiography can still be used to determine classification and diagnosis in preparing a treatment plan even though it has limitations.


Characteristics Impaction teeth; Upper third molar; Classification; Panoramic


Malik NA. Textbook of oral and maxillofacial surgery. 3rd ed. Jaypee Brothers Medical Pub; 2012. 126 p.

Balaji SM, Balaji PP. Textbook of oral and maxillofacial surgery. 3rd ed. New Delhi: Elsevier; 2018. 880 p.

Scheid RC, Weiss G. Woelfel’s dental anatomy. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams &. Wilkins; 2017. 167p.

Singh M, Chakrabarty A. Prevalence of impacted teeth: Study of 500 patients. Int J Sci Res. 2016;5(1):1577–80.

Nazir A, Akhtar MU, Ali S. Assessment of different patterns of impacted mandibular third molars and their associated pathologies. J Adv Med Dent Sci Res. 2014;2(2):14–22.

Miloro M, GE G, Larsen P, Peter W. Peterson’s principles of oral and maxillofacial surgery. 3rd ed. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. PMPH USA; 2012. 139 p.

Spiotto MT, Juodzbalys G, Daugela P. Mandibular third molar impaction: Review of literature and a proposal of a classification. J Oral Maxillofac Res. 2013;4(2):1–12.

Chhabra S, Chhabra N, Dhillon G. Inverted and impacted maxillary third molar: Removal by lateral transposition method. Int J Exp Dent Sci. 2012;1(1):26–9.

Moore U. Principles of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. 6th ed. Wiley-Blackwell; 2011. 136 p.

Umboh JM., Winata L, Riwudjeru DJ. Gambaran gigi impaksi pasien yang berkunjung di BP-RSGM Universitas Sam Ratulangi pada tahun 2011. e-GIGI. 2013;1(2):1–6.

Sejfija Z, Koҁani F, Macan D. Prevalence of pathologies associated with impacted third molars in Kosovo population: An orthopantomographic study. Acta Stomatol Croat. 2019;53(1):72–81.

Pourmand PP, Sigron GR, Mache B, Stadlinger B, Locher MC. The most common complications after wisdom-tooth removal. Swiss Dent J. 2014;124(10):1042–6.

Cassetta M, Sofan AAA, Altieri F, Barbato E. Evaluation of alveolar cortical bone thickness and density for orthodontic mini-implant placement. J Clin Exp Dent. 2013;5(5):245–52.

Archer WH. Oral and maxillofacial surgery. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 1975. 1859 p.

Shiller WR. Positional changes in mesio-angular impacted mandibular third molars during a year. J Am Dent Assoc. 1979;99(3):460–4.

Jung YH, Cho BH. Assessment of maxillary third molars with panoramic radiography and cone-beam computed tomography. Imaging Sci Dent. 2015;45(4):233–40.

Passi D, Singh G, Dutta S, Srivastava D, Chandra L, Mishra S, et al. Study of pattern and prevalence of mandibular impacted third molar among Delhi-National Capital Region population with newer proposed classification of mandibular impacted third molar: A retrospective study. Natl J Maxillofac Surg. 2019;10(1):59–67.

Sarilita E, Rynn C, Mossey PA, Black S, Oscandar F. Nose profile morphology and accuracy study of nose profile estimation method in Scottish subadult and Indonesian adult populations. Int J Legal Med. 2018;132(3):923–31.

Hassan A. Pattern of third molar impaction in a Saudi population. Clin Cosmet Investig Dent. 2010;2:109–13.

Hatem M. Pattern of third molar impaction in Libyan population : A retrospective radiographic study. Saudi J Dent Res. 2016;7(1):7–12.

Hashemipour MA, Tahmasbi-Arashlow M, Fahimi-Hanzaei F. Incidence of impacted mandibular and maxillary third molars: A radiographic study in a Southeast Iran Population. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2013;18(1):1–6.

Kaomongkolgit R, Tantanapornkul W. Pattern of impacted third molars in Thai population: Retrospective radiographic survey. J Int Dent Med Res. 2017;10(1):30–5.

El-Khateeb SM, Arnout EA, Hifnawy T. Radiographic assessment of impacted teeth and associated pathosis prevalence: Pattern of occurrence at different ages in Saudi Male in Western Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J. 2015;36(8):973–9.

Al-Dajani M, Abouonq AO, Almohammadi TA, Alruwaili MK, Alswilem RO, Alzoubi IA. A cohort study of the patterns of third molar impaction in panoramic tadiographs in Saudi population. Open Dent J. 2017;11(1):648–60.

Jung Y, Cho B. Prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in adults aged 25 years and above. Imaging Sci Dent. 2013;43:219–25.

Kumar Pillai A, Thomas S, Paul G, Singh SK, Moghe S. Incidence of impacted third molars: A radiographic study in People’s Hospital, Bhopal, India. J Oral Biol Craniofacial Res. 2014;4(2):76–81.

Shashidhar K, Castelino KC, Kuttappa MN, Nair RA, Soans CR, Nair HS. Third molar angulation changes in class II div I malocclusion subjects treated with extraction of four premolars: A retrospective study. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2020;10(1):591–6.

Arabion H, Gholami M, Dehghan H, Khalife H. Prevalence of impacted teeth among young adults: A retrospective radiographic study. J Dent Mater Tech. 2017;6(3):131–7.

Topkara A, Sari Z. Investigation of third molar impaction in Turkish orthodontic patients: Prevalence, depth and angular positions. Eur J Dent. 2013;7(5):94–8.

Alfadil L, Almajed E. Prevalence of impacted third molars and the reason for extraction in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Dent J [Internet]. 2020;32(5):262–8.

Jung YH, Cho BH. Radiographic evaluation of third molar development in 6- to 24-year-olds. Imaging Sci Dent. 2014;44(3):185–91.

Gu Y, Sun C, Wu D, Zhu Q, Leng D, Zhou Y. Evaluation of the relationship between maxillary posterior teeth and the maxillary sinus floor using cone-beam computed tomography. BMC Oral Health. 2018;18(1):1–7.

Carvalho RWF De, De Araújo Filho RCA, Do Egito Vasconcelos BC. Assessment of factors associated with surgical difficulty during removal of impacted maxillary third molars. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013;71(5):839–45.

Sammut S, Lopes V, Morrison A, Malden NJ. Predicting the choice of anaesthesia for third molar surgery - Guideline or the easy-line? Br Dent J. 2013;214(4):1–4.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Lisensi Creative Commons
This work is licensed under a Lisensi Creative Commons Atribusi-BerbagiSerupa 4.0 Internasional.
Contact us: ODONTO Dental Journal: Jl. Raya Kaligawe Km.4, PO BOX 1054/SM Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia, 50112. Email: