Puspita Hajardhini, Heni Susilowati, Heribertus Dedy Kusuma Yulianto


Introduction : Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is Gram-negative bacteria which is normally inhabiting in environment, however it tends to be an opportunistic pathogen within oral cavity. It utilizes the oral cavity as potential reservoir to infect either lungs or oral cavity itself. Both planktonic and biofilm forms can mediate its infection in oral cavity so that making its difficulties to eradicate since its broad resistance to antibiotics.
Method : We review the pathogenesis of oral infection and host defense mechanism to P. aeruginosa as well.
Discussion: Several prevention strategies, both chemical and nonchemical, are elaborated to avoid oral bacterial contamination.
Conclusion : Prevention strategies in dental aspect to P. aeruginosa is highly needed as its occurrence are susceptible to cross-infection.


biofilm ; Pseudomonas aeruginosa ; reservoir


El-Solh AA, Pietrantoni C, Bhat A, Okada M, Zambon J, Aquilina A, et al. Colonization of Dental Plaques : A Reservoir of Respiratory Pathogens for Hospital- Acquired Pneumonia in Institutionalized Elders. Chest. 2004;126(5):1575–82.

Heo S, Haase EM, Lesse AJ, Gill SR, Scannapieco FA. Genetic Relationships between Respiratory Pathogens Isolated from Dental Plaque and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid from Patients in the Intensive Care Unit Undergoing Mechanical Ventilation. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47(12):1562–70.

Caldas RR, Le Gall F, Revert K, Rault G, Virmaux M, Gouriou S, et al. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and periodontal pathogens in the oral cavity and lungs of cystic fibrosis patients: A case-control study. J Clin Microbiol. 2015;53(6):1898–907.

Souto R, Silva-Boghossian CM, Colombo APV. Prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. in subgingival biofilm and saliva of subjects with chronic periodontal infection. Brazilian J Microbiol. 2014;45(2):495–501.

Yip KH-K, Smales RJ. Implications of oral biofilms in medically at risk persons ☆. J Biomed Res. 2012;26(1):1–7.

Gendron R, Grenier D, Maheu-Robert LF. The oral cavity as a reservoir of bacterial pathogens for focal infections. Microbes Infect. 2000;2(8):897–906.

Barbot V, Robert A, Rodier MH, Imbert C. Update on infectious risks associated with dental unit waterlines. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2012;65(2):196–204.

Abdouchakour F, Dupont C, Grau D, Aujoulat F, Mournetas P, Marchandin H, et al. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Achromobacter sp. Clonal Selection Leads to Successive Waves of Contamination of Water in Dental Care. Appl Env Microbiol. 2015;81(21):7509–24.

Colombo APV, Magalhaes CB, Hartenbach FARR, Souto RM do, Silva-Boghossian CM da. Periodontal-disease-associated biofilm : A reservoir for pathogens of medical importance. Microb Pathog. 2016;94:27–34.

Gaetti-jardim EC, Marqueti AC, Faverani LP, Júnior EG. Antimicrobial resistance of aerobes and facultative anaerobes isolated from the oral cavity. J Appl Oral Sci. 2010;18(6):551–9.

Scannapieco FA, Stewart EM, Mylotte JM. Colonization of dental plaque by respiratory pathogens in medical intensive care patients. Crit Care Med. 1992;20(6):740–5.

Tada A, Hanada N. Opportunistic respiratory pathogens in the oral cavity of the elderly. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2010;60:1–17.

Lin CK, Kazmierczak BI. Inflammation : a double-edged sword in the response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. J Innate Immun. 2017;9(3):250–61.

Donnell LEO, Smith K, Williams C, Nile CJ, Lappin DF, Bradshaw D, et al. Dentures are a Reservoir for Respiratory Pathogens. J Prosthodont. 2016;25:99–104.

Marino PJ, Wise MP, Smith A, Marchesi JR, Riggio MP, Lewis MAO, et al. Community analysis of dental plaque and endotracheal tube bio fi lms from mechanically ventilated patients. J Crit Care. 2017;39:149–55.

Porteous N. Dental unit waterline contamination--a review. Tex Dent J. 2010;127(7):677–85.

Berlutti F, Testarelli L, Vaia F, De Luca M, Dolci G. Efficacy of anti-retraction devices in preventing bacterial contamination of dental unit water lines. J Dent. 2003;31(2):105–10.

Dallolio L, Scuderi A, Rini MS, Valente S, Farruggia P, Sabattini MAB, et al. Effect of Different Disinfection Protocols on Microbial and Biofilm Contamination of Dental Unit Waterlines in Community Dental Practices. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2014;11:2064–76.

He X, Hu W, He J, Guo L, Lux R, Shi W. Community-based interference against integration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa into human salivary microbial biofilm. Mol Oral Microbiol. 2012;26(6):337–52.

Knouse MC, Madeira RG, Celani VJ. Pseudomonas aeruginosa causing a right carotid artery mycotic aneurysm after a dental extraction procedure. Mayo Clin Proc. 2002;77(10):1125–30.

Pereira RS, Bonardi JP, Ferreira ACD, Latini GL. An unusual case of dental infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa causing a brain abscess: case report. Aust Dent J. 2017;62(4):523–7.

D’Ovidio C, Carnevale A, Pantaleone G, Piattelli A, Di Bonaventura G. First report of an acute purulent maxillary sinusitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa secondary to dental implant placement in an immunocompetent patient. Br Dent J. 2011;211(5):205–7.

Vesna A. Focal Infections in Oral Cavity. J Dent Oral Heal. 2018;4(2):1–2.

Fujii R, Saito Y, Tokura Y, K-i N, Okuda K, Characterization IK. Characterization of bacterial flora in persistent apical periodontitis lesions. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2009;24:502–5.

Mena KD, Gerba CP. Risk Assessment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Water. Vol. 201, Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2009. 1-38 hal.

Dahlen G. Bacterial infections of the oral mucosa. Periodontol 2000. 2009;49(1):13–38.

Alhazmi A. Pseudomonas aeruginosa – Pathogenesis and Pathogenic Mechanisms. Int J Biol. 2015;7(2):44–67.

Ruffin M, Brochiero E. Repair Process Impairment by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Epithelial Tissues : Major Features and Potential Therapeutic Avenues. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2019;9(May):1–18.

Gellatly SL, Hancock REW. Pseudomonas aeruginosa : new insights into pathogenesis and host defenses. Pathog Dis. 2013;67:159–73.

Rutherford V, Yom K, Ozer EA, Pura O, Hughes A, Murphy R, et al. Environmental Reservoirs for exoS+ and exoU+ strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Env Microbiol Rep. 2019;10(4):485–92.

Ciornei CD, Novikov A, Beloin C, Fitting C, Caroff M, Ghigo J. Biofilm-forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria undergo lipopolysacharide structural modifications and induce enhanced inflammatory cytokine response in human monocytes. Innate Immun. 2010;1–15.

Susilowati H, Hutomo S, Siagian JW, Siwi DP. Caspase-3-dependent Cell Death in B lymphocyte Caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pyocyanin. J Dent Indonesia. 2015;22(2):51–5.

Jensen PO, Givskov M, Bjarnsholt T, Moser C. The immune system vs Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2010;59:292–305.

Lavoie E, Wangdi T, Kazmierczak B. Innate immune response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Microbes Infect. 2011;13(14–15):1133–45.

Zhang J, Wu X-Y, Yu F-SX. Inflammatory responses of corneal epithelial cells to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Curr Eye Res. 2005;30(7):527–34.

Borgatti M, Bezzerri V, Mancini I, Nicolis E, Cristina M, Lampronti I, et al. Induction of IL-6 gene expression in a CF bronchial epithelial cell line by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is dependent on transcription factors belonging to the Sp1 superfamily.Biochem Biophys Res Commun.2007;357:977–83.

Pier GB. Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide : A major virulence factor , initiator of inflammation and target for effective immunity. J Med Microbiol. 2007;297:277–95.

Cole N, Bao S, Willcox M, Husband AJ. Expression of interleukin-6 in the cornea in response to infection with different strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Infect Immun. 1999;67(5):2497–502.

Ciszek-Lenda M, Strus M, Walczewska G, Majka A, Machul-Żwirbla A, Mikolajczyk D, et al. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm is a potent inducer of phagocyte hyperinflammation. Inflamm Res. 2019;68(5):397–413.

Vincent JL, Bihari DJ, Suter PM, Bruining HA, White J, Nicolas Chanoin MH, et al. The Prevalence of Nosocomial Infection in Intensive Care Units in Europe: Results of the European Prevalence of Infection in Intensive Care (EPIC) Study. JAMA J Am Med Assoc. 1995;274(8):639–44.

Balai Besar Teknik Kesehatan Lingkungan dan Pengendalian Penyakit Yogyakarta. Rencana Aksi Kegiatan BBTKLP Yogyakarta tahun 2015-2019 [Internet]. Yogyakarta; 2018. 5 hal. Tersedia pada:

Marino PJ, Hannigan A, Haywood S, Cole JM, Palmer N, Emanuel C, et al. Comparison of foam swabs and toothbrushes as oral hygiene interventions in mechanically ventilated patients : a randomised split mouth study. BMJ Open Respir Res. 2016;3:1–10.

Pan J, Zhao J, Jiang N. Oral cavity infection: An adverse effect after the treatment of oral cancer in aged individuals. J Appl Oral Sci. 2014;22(4):261–7.

Jones DJ, Munro CL, Grap MJ, Kitten T, Edmond M. Oral care and bacterimia risk in mechanically ventilated adults. Hear Lung. 2011;39(6):1–15.

Klompas M, Speck K, Howell MD, Greene LR, Berenholtz SM. Reappraisal of routine oral care with chlorhexidine gluconate for patients receiving mechanical ventilation: Systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174(5):751–61.

Scannapieco FA, Yu J, Raghavendran K, Vacanti A, Owens SI, Wood K, et al. A randomized trial of chlorhexidine gluconate on oral bacterial pathogens in mechanically ventilated patients. Crit Care. 2009;13(4):1–12.

García-Caballero L, Quintas V, Prada-López I, Seoane J, Donos N, Tomás I. Chlorhexidine substantivity on salivary flora and plaque-like biofilm: An In situ model. PLoS One. 2013;8(12):1–10.

Lizzadro J, Mazzotta M, Girolamini L, Dormi A, Pellati T, Cristino S. Comparison between Two Types of Dental Unit Waterlines : How Evaluation of Microbiological Contamination Can Support Risk Containment. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(328):1–14.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Lisensi Creative Commons
Ciptaan disebarluaskan di bawah Lisensi Creative Commons Atribusi-BerbagiSerupa 4.0 Internasional.
Contact us: ODONTO Dental Journal: Jl. Raya Kaligawe Km.4, PO BOX 1054/SM Semarang 50112. Email: [email protected]