Indonesian National Development Planning System Based on State Policy Guidelines (GBHN) : A Return to the Future?

Hilaire Tegnan, Charles Simabura, Saldi Isra


The National Guidelines of State Policy known to the Indonesian people as Garis Besar Haluan Negara (GBHN) used to be a set of political, economic and social principles enacted every five years by the People’s Consultative Assembly or Majels Permusyawaratan Rakyat (referred to as MPR hereafter) that had to be followed by both central and regional governments for the prosperity of Indonesia and the Indonesian people. However, since the amendments to the 1945 Constitution (1999-2002), which stripped MPR of much of its power, this national development planning scheme was abolished and decentralization was established throughout Indonesia. Nevertheless, in recent years more voices are being heard demanding the reinstatement of the National Guidelines. This paper discusses the issue of national development planning at the central government level. Drawing on the example of the Indonesian National Guidelines of State Policy, the paper argues that a possible return to the old guideline policy could be counter-productive as it would harm the decentralization process, political freedom, democracy, human rights, and the rule of law in Indonesia.

Full Text:



Arskal Salim. Dynamic Legal Pluralism in Indonesia: the shift in plural legal orders of contemporary Aceh A Paper presented at the First International Conference on Aceh and Indian Ocean Studies, Banda Aceh 24–26 February 2007

Effendi Sofian. Sistem Pemerintahan Negara Berdasarkan Faham Kekeluargaan dan Idiologi Negara Pancasila Paper presented at the National Seminar of One Century National Awakening, organized by the Nation Character Building Co-operation Institution in Jakarta, on 5 May 2008.

Friedrich Hayek. 2001. The Road to Serfdom,. Routledge Classics.

Herbert Feith. 1968 Suharto's Search For a Political Format, Australia's Neighbours, May-June Green, Keith: Decentralization and good governance:The case of Indonesia. MPRA Paper No. 18097, 26. October 2009.

Hilaire Tegnan. The Implementation of the Rule of Law in Post Colonial Developing Countries: A case Study of Legal Pluralism in Indonesia. Ph.D. Dissertation defended on January 30, 2016 Andalas University

Ikrar Nusa Bhakti et al., Military Politics, Ethnicity, and Conflict in Indonesia. Crise Working Paper No. 62 January 2009.

Jimly As-shiddiqie. 2004. Constitution and Indonesian Constitutionalism. Jakarta, Indonesian Constitutional Court and PSHTN. Fakultas Hukum. Univesitas Indonesia.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

International Journal of Law Reconstruction Indexed by :

DOAJgoogle_scholarsintacrossrefMendeley onesearch  dimension

International Journal of Law Recnstruction
Faculty of Law, UnissulaCopyright of International Journal of Law Reconstruction
Jalan Kaligawe Raya KM.4, Terboyo Kulon, Genuk, E-ISSN 2775-8885 (Online)
Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia, 50112 IJLR is licensed under a