Mutiara Annisa, Archadian Nuryanti, Anne Handrini Dewi


Background: White teeth colour influence aesthetical appearance which leads to self-confidence and quality of life. Extrinsic stain is the most common aetiology of teeth discoloration, which caused by widely consumed products such as tea, coffee, and tobacco. It also formed on denture and cause negative impacts. Commercial extrinsic stain removal toothpastes only indicated for teeth and contain chemical active agent with undesirable effects. Aim of this study is to determine effectivity of bay leaf (Eugenia polyantha Wight) extract as toothpaste active agent for extrinsic stain removal on teeth and dentures.
Method: Pictures of teeth, artificial teeth, and acrylic resin base taken before experiment, after stain induction (using 25g of tea in 100ml of 100oC water for 7 days, tea solution replaced every 24 hours), and after brushing. Toothpastes used for brushing were no active agent basic formulation toothpaste, bay leaf extract toothpastes at 5%, 10%, 15% concentrations, and commercial stain removal toothpaste as positive control. Specimens were brushed using automatic brushing machine for 70 seconds/surface, using 250g load, and speed 5 movements/sec. Colour index analysis of specimens’ pictures were computerized and analysed using CIELAB method to obtain L-value of extrinsic stain removal. Data analysis performed using one-way ANOVA (α=0.05).
Result: There is effect of toothpaste containing bay leaf extract 15% to remove extrinsic stain both on teeth, artificial teeth, and acrylic resin base according to one-way ANOVA.
Conclusion: Bay leaf extract is effective and potential to be used as toothpaste active agent for extrinsic stain removal on teeth and denture.


Herbal toothpaste; Bay leaf extract; Extrinsic stain; Teeth; CIELAB

Full Text:



Cho MJ. The Tooth Whitening Effect of Toothpaste Containing High Cleaning Silica and Sodium Hexametaphosphate and the Preventive Effect of Staining by Coffee, Tea and Wine. International Journal of Clinical Preventive Dentistry. 2020;1(6):192–199.

Tin-Oo MM, Saddki N, Hassan N. Factors influencing patient satisfaction with dental appearance and treatments they desire to improve aesthetics. BMC Oral Health. 2011;11(6):20-28.

Bersezio C, Martín J, Mayer C, Rivera O, Estay J, Vernal R, et al. Quality of life and stability of tooth color change at three months after dental bleaching. Qual Life Res [Internet]. 2018;27(12):3199–207. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11136-018-1972-7.

Prathap S, Rajesh H, Boloor VA, Rao AS. Extrinsic stains and management: A new insight, J. Acad. Indus. Res. 2013;2(1):435-442.

Chumpitaz-Durand RB, Cordova-Sotomayor DA. Prevalence and risk factors for extrinsic discoloration in deciduous dentition of peruvian school children. Rev. Fac. Odontol. 2018; 2(9):15-24.

Epple M, Meyer F, Enax J. A critical review of modern concepts for teeth whitening. Dent J. 2019;7(3):1–13.

Banu F, Jeyapalan K, Anand Kumar V, Modi K. Comparison of Colour Stability Between Various Denture Base Resins on Staining and Denture Cleansing Using Commercially Available Denture Cleansers. Cureus. 2020;12(1):1–12.

Awing MM, Koyama AT. Stabilitas warna basis gigitiruan resin termoplastik nilon yang direndam dalam larutan pembersih gigitiruan peroksida alkalin. J Dentomaxillofacial Sci. 2018;12(2):98.

Felton D, Cooper L, Duqum I, Minsley G, Guckes A, Haug S, et al. Evidence-based guidelines for the care and maintenance of complete dentures: A publication of the American College of Prosthodontists. J Am Dent Assoc [Internet]. 2011;142(February):1-20. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.14219/jada.archive.2011.0067

Souza-Rodrigues RD uart. de, Ferreira S da S, D’Almeida-Couto RS ouz., Lachowski KM onteleon., Sobral MÂP, Marques MM. Choice of toothpaste for the elderly: an in vitro study. Braz Oral Res. 2015;29(July):11-19.

Ayaz EA, Ustun S. Effect of staining and denture cleaning on color stability of differently polymerized denture base acrylic resins. Niger J Clin Pract. 2020;23:304-9.

Castillo-Henríquez L, Alfaro-Aguilar K, Ugalde-álvarez J, Vega-Fernández L, de Oca-Vásquez GM, Vega-Baudrit JR. Green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles from plant extracts and their possible applications as antimicrobial agents in the agricultural area. Nanomaterials. 2020;10(9):1–24.

Ekor M. The growing use of herbal medicines: Issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety. Front Neurol. 2014;4 JAN(January):1–10.

Silalahi M. Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp (Botani, Metabolit Sekunder dan Pemanfaatan). Jurnal Dinamika Pendidikan. 2017;10(3):187–202.

Setyowati N, Fadli A. Penentuan tingkat kematangan buah salam (Syzgium polyanthum) sebagai benih dengan uji kecambah dan vigor biji. LIPI. 2015;1(1):31-36.

Adrianto AW. Uji Daya Antibakteri Ekstrak Daun Salam (Eugenia polyantha Wight) dalam Pasta Gigi Terhadap Pertumbuhan Streptococcus mutans. Stomatognatic-Jurnal Kedokteran Gigi. 2012; 3(2):17-26.

Istiqomah H, Ayuska A. Karakterisasi Minyak Atsiri Daun Salam ( Syzygium polyanthum Wight) Asal Kalimantan Barat. J Kim Khatulistiwa. 2020;1(3):37–44.

Batool S, Khera RA, Hanif MA, Ayub MA. Bay Leaf. In: Medicinal Plants of South Asia. Singapore: Elsevier; 2020. p. 63–74.

Soekobagiono S, Rostiny, Wulandari F. Pengaruh Lama Perendaman Resin Akrilik Heat Cured Dalam Eugenol Minyak Kayu Manis Terhadap Kekuatan Transversa. J Prosthodont. 2012;3(1):52–56.

Ramadhania Q. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Ekstrak Etanol Daun Salam (Eugenia Polyantha W) Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bakteri Streptococcus Mutans In Vitro. JIKG. 2020; 2(1):12-18.

Hartanti D, Djalil AD, Hamad A, Yulianingsih N. The Effect of Infusion of Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp. Leaves as Natural Preservative Chicken Meats. J Kefarmasian Indonesia. 2019;9(1):19–27.

Xu JS, Li Y, Cao X, Cui Y. The effect of eugenol on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans and dental caries development in rats. Exp Ther Med. 2013;5(6):1667–70.

Zhang QW, Lin LG, Ye WC. Techniques for extraction and isolation of natural products: A comprehensive review. Chinese Med (United Kingdom) [Internet]. 2018;13(1):1–26. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13020-018-0177-x

Ningrum CDS, Saputera D, Arifin R. Toxicity Test of Bay Leaf Extract on Bhk-21 Fibroblast Cells in Vitro. J Kedokt Gigi. 2019;4(2):178–82.

Akotakar AM, Thenge RR, Patil A V, Ghonge AB, Bhaltadak MB. Formulation and comparative standardization of toothpaste. Int J Pharm Sci Res [Internet]. 2018;3(4):12–5. Available from: http://www.pharmacyjournal.net/archives/2018/vol3/issue4/3-4-23

Coulthwaite L, Verran J. Evaluation of in vivo denture plaque assessment methods. Br Dent J [Internet]. 2009;207(6):1–6. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.bdj.2009.854

Kalyana P, Shashidhar A, Meghashyam B, Sreevidya KR, Sweta S. Stain removal efficacy of a novel dentrifice containing papain and bromelain extracts-an in vitro study. Int J Dent Hygiene. 2010;9(1):1-5.

Nuryanti A, Soesatyo MH, Agustina D, Sunarintyas S. The effects of ultrasonic scaling duration and replication on caspase-3 expression of Sprague Dawley rat’s pulp cells. Dent J (Majalah Kedokt Gigi). 2015;48(1):48.

Hayasaki H, Saitoh I, Nakakura-Ohshima K, Hanasaki M, Nogami Y, Nakajima T, et al. Tooth brushing for oral prophylaxis. Jpn Dent Sci Rev [Internet]. 2014;50(3):69–77. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdsr.2014.04.001

Koshy RR, Mary SK, Thomas S, Pothan LA. Industrial Color Physics. New York: Springer: 2015. p.167-9.

Rego Roselino L de M, Alandia-Román CC, Leite VMF, Silva-Lovato CH, Pires-De-Souza F de CP. Color stability and surface roughness of artificial teeth brushed with an experimental Ricinus communis toothpaste. Brazilian J Oral Sci. 2015;14(4):267–71.

Brennan MM, Hallas D, Jacobs SK, Robbins M, Northridge M. Home-use whitening toothpastes for whitening teeth in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;2014(1).

Banu F, Jeyapalan K, Anand Kumar V, Modi K. Comparison of Colour Stability Between Various Denture Base Resins on Staining and Denture Cleansing Using Commercially Available Denture Cleansers. Cureus. 2020;12(1):1–12.

Koeings PM, Faller RV. Fundamentals of Dentrifice: Oral Health Benefits in a Tube. Chicago: Academy of General Dentistry: 2013. p.45-7.

Rahardjo A, Gracia E, Riska G, Adiatman M, Maharani DA. Potential Side Effects of Whitening Toothpaste on Enamel Roughness and Micro Hardness. Int J Clin Prev Dent. 2015;11(4):239–42.

Ramadhan IPA, Damiyanti M, Triaminingsih S. Effects of brushing with abrasive dentifrices containing various materials on the surface roughness of acrylic resins. J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 2018;10(7): 62-69.

Hara AT, Turssi CP. Baking soda as an abrasive in toothpastes: Mechanism of action and safety and effectiveness considerations. J Am Dent Assoc [Internet]. 2017;148(11):27–33. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adaj.2017.09.007

Penny C. An Updated and Extended Mohs Mineral Hardness Scale Updated and Extended Mohs Mineral Hardness Scale. 2011;1812:2–3.

Hilgenberg SP, Pinto SCS, Farago PV, Santos FA, Wambier DS. Physical-chemical characteristics of whitening toothpaste and evaluation of its effects on enamel roughness. Braz Oral Res. 2011;25(4):288–94.

Yang CS, Wang H, Chen JX, Zhang J. Effects of Tea Catechins on Cancer Signaling Pathways. Enzymes [Internet]. 2014;36(2):195-221. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-802215-3.00010-0

Sudarma M. Organic Chemistry. Mathematics and Science Faculty Universitas Mataram: Mataram: 2009. p.9-11.

Anwar C. Pengantar Praktikum Kimia Organik. UGM Press: Yogyakarta: 2014. p.15-7.

Zeng L, Ma M, Li C, Luo L. Stability of tea polyphenols solution with different pH at different temperatures. Int J Food Prop [Internet]. 2017;20(1):1-18. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2014.983605

Azer SS, Hague AL, Johnston WM. Effect of bleaching on tooth discoloration from food colorant in vitro. J Dent [Internet]. 2011;39(3):52-6. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2011.09.006

Picchio V, Cammisotto V, Pagano F, Carnevale R, Chimenti I. Ion-Exchange Chromatography and Its Applications. In: Protein Chromatography [Internet]. Acikara: licensee InTech; 2013. p. 29–31. Available from: https://www.intechopen.com/books/advanced-biometric-technologies/liveness-detection-in-biometrics

Geovani V. Pengaruh Perasan Daun Salam (Eugenia Polyantha Wight) 80% sebagai Pembersih Gigi Tiruan terhadap Kekuatan Tekan Resin Akrilik Tipe Heat-Cured dengan Variasi Lama Perendaman. JIKG. 2016;3(2):1-8.

Mark H F. Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology. John Wiley & Sons: New Jersey: 2013. p.327.

Hussain S. Textbook of Dental Materials. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd: New Delhi: 2013. p. 120.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30659/odj.9.0.40-50


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Lisensi Creative Commons
This work is licensed under a Lisensi Creative Commons Atribusi-BerbagiSerupa 4.0 Internasional.
Contact us: ODONTO Dental Journal: Jl. Raya Kaligawe Km.4, PO BOX 1054/SM Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia, 50112. Email: odontodentaljournal@unissula.ac.id