The Efforts of the Royal Thai Domestic Bureaucracy in an Effort to Protest against the Haze/Smog from Indonesia

Thaan Neet Bunprakop, Ong Argo Victoria, Firdo Lingga


This study aims to explain three determinant factors in influencing a country in making policies, especially the kingdom of Thailand. The three determinants of the considerations above have an interconnected role in influencing every consideration of policy makers to make decisions. Where in the domestic context, which consists of domestic politics, economic and military forces play a role together with the international context in shaping the direction of foreign policy. So that these three considerations do not stand separately because they influence each other in the policy-making process. The existence of deforestation and fires in Indonesia has caused significant problems. Because deforestation and forest fires are directly transboundary haze which makes Indonesia a smoke haze contributing country in the Southeast Asian region. Therefore, in relation to forest fires in Indonesia which have become an environmental issue, the Indonesian government also has a responsibility towards cross-border air pollution. Where in terms of international law, state responsibility is an obligation that must be carried out by a country to other countries. So that the Indonesian government in this case has responsibility for cross-border air pollution that occurs in Southeast Asia. The Indonesian government has also ratified ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary haze pollution (AATHP). Therefore, the Indonesian government is trying to solve this problem in a sustainable manner.


Disaster; Fire; Forest; Haze; International; Smog.

Full Text:




Aiken, S. R. (2004). Runaway fires, smoke-haze pollution, and unnatural disasters in Indonesia. American Geographical Society, 94, 55–79.

Albar, I., Jaya, I.N.S., Saharjo, B.H., Kuncahyo, B., Vadrevu, K.P. (2018). Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Land and Forest Fires in Indonesia Using MODIS Active Fire Dataset. In Vadrevu, K., Ohara, T., Justice, C. (Eds.),Land-Atmospheric Research Applications in South and Southeast Asia(pp. 105–127). Springer.

Alencar, A., Nepstad, D., & Del Carmen Vera Diaz, M. (2006). Forest Understory Fire in the Brazilian Amazon in ENSO and Non-ENSO Years: Area Burned and Committed Carbon Emissions. Earth Interactions, 10(6), 1–17.

Alisjahbana, A. S., & Busch, J. M. (2017). Forestry, forest fires, and climate change in Indonesia. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 53(2), 111–136.

Alsepan, G., & Minobe, S. (2020). Relations between interannual variability of regional-scale indonesian precipitation and large-scale climate modes during 1960–2007. Journal of Climate, 33(12), 5271–5291.

Bellard, C., Bertelsmeier, C., Leadley, P., Thuiller, W., & Courchamp, F. (2012). Impacts of climate change on the future of biodiversity. Ecology Letters, 15(4), 365–377.

Böcher, M., & Krott, M. (2016). Science Makes the World Go Round. Springer.Boer, C. (2002). Forest and fire suppression in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. In P. Moore, D. Ganz, L. C. Tan, T. Enters, & P. B. Durst (Eds.), Communities in Flames: Proceedings of an International Conference on Community Involvement in Fire Management. FAO& FireFight South East Asia.

Bong, I. W., Felker, M. E., & Maryudi, A. (2016). How are local people driving and affected by forest cover change? Opportunities for local participation in REDD+ Forest and Society, Vol.6(2): 609-619617

Brasika, I. B. M. (2022). The role of el nino variability and peatland in burnt area and emitted carbon in forest fire modeling. Forest and Society, 6(April), 84–103.

Busch, J., Ferretti-Gallon, K., Engelmann, J., Wright, M., Austin, K. G., Stolle, F., ... Baccini, A. (2015). Reductions in emissions from deforestation from Indonesia’s moratorium on new oil palm, timber, and logging concessions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112(5), 1328–1333.

Chen, C. (2013). Mapping Scientic Frontiers The Quest for Knowledge Visualization Second Edition(2nd ed.). Springer.

Dunn, W. N. (1994). Public Policy Analysis: An Introduction(2nd ed.). Prentice Hall.Edwards, R. B., Naylor, R. L., Higgins, M. M., & Falcon, W. P. (2020). Causes of Indonesia’s forest fires. World Development, 127, 104717.

Head, B. W. (2015). Policy analysis: Evidence based policy-making. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences: Second Edition, 281–287.

Howlett, M., & Ramesh, M. (1993). Patterns of policy instrument choice: policy styles, policy learning and the privatization experience. Review of Policy Research, 12(1–2), 3–24.

Juárez-Orozco, S. M., Siebe, C., & Fernández y Fernández, D. (2017). Causes and effects of forest fires in tropical rainforests: A bibliometric approach. Tropical Conservation Science, 10, 194008291773720.

Krott, M. (2005). Forest policy analysis. In Forest Policy Analysis. Springer., A. V., Aziz, B., Shams, I., & Busse, J. W. (2009). Comparisons of citations in Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar for articles published in general medical journals. JAMA, 302(10), 1092–1096.

Miettinen, J., Hooijer, A., Wang, J., Shi, C., & Liew, S. C. (2012). Peatland degradation and conversion sequences and interrelations in Sumatra. Regional Environmental Change, 12(4), 729–737.

Neil Adger, W., Benjaminsen, T. A., Brown, K., & Svarstad, H. (2001). Advancing a political ecology of global environmental discourses. Developmentand Change, 32(4), 681–715.

Rieley, J. O., & Banks, C. J. (2011). Global and regional importance of the tropical peatland carbon pool. Global Change Biology, 17(2), 798–818.

Parmesan, C. (2006). Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 37, 637–669.

Pielke, R. A. (2007). The honest broker: Making sense of science in policy and politics. Cambridge University Press.

Roberts, M. J., Thomas, S. R., & Dowling, M. J. (1984). Mapping scientific disputes that affect public policymaking. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 9(1), 112–122.

Rowley, J., & Slack, F. (2004). Conducting a literature review. Management Research News, 27(6), 31–39.

Spilsbury, M. J., & Kaimowitz, D. (2000). The influence of research and publications on conventional wisdom and policies affecting forests. Unasylva, 51(203), 3-10.Tacconi, L. (2003). Kebakaran hutan di Indonesia: penyebab, biaya dan implikasi kebijakan.CIFOR Occasional Paper No. 38(i), 1-26.

Tacconi, L. (2016). Preventing fires and haze in Southeast Asia. Nature Climate Change, 6(7), 640–643.

Wu, C., Venevsky,S., Sitch, S., Mercado, L. M., Huntingford, C., & Staver, A. C. (2021). Historical and future global burned area with changing climate and human demography. One Earth, 4(4), 517–530.

Yin, S., Wang, X., Santoso, H., Tani, H., Zhong, G., & Sun, Z. (2018). Analyzing CO2 concentration changes and their influencing factors in Indonesia by OCO-2 and other multi-sensor remote-sensing data. International Journal of Digital Earth, 11(8), 825–844.

Internet:, accessed on December 2022



  • There are currently no refbacks.

View My Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Daulat Hukum has been indexed in:

sinta google_scholar moraref garuda neliti Dimension Base