Joko Setiyono, Aga Natalis


The purpose of this research is to find out the implementation and actualization of international and domestic law regarding child trafficking, to find examples of multilateral international cooperation forms that have been created in the context of overcoming child trafficking, and to identify threats and solutions needed by the international community in the prevention of Child Trafficking. This research was legal research with a normative juridical approach with descriptive-analytical research specifications. Child trafficking is a form of human trafficking. This crime can be attributed to the existence and widespread of the concept of "modern slavery." Internationally and nationally, laws regarding the prevention of child trafficking and child protection have been created. Examples in the international spectrum are UNTOC Annex II: Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, Convention on The Rights of the Child created by UNICEF, International Program on the Elimination of Child Labor (IPEC) by the ILO, the World Congress against the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children, and the Palermo Protocol. With evidence of the development of child trafficking with the influence of cyberspace and information technology, the international community's concern on this issue must also increase. This is needed in making effective policies, laws, and actions in overcoming the crime of child trafficking. 


Human Trafficking, Child Trafficking, Modern Slavery, International Law.

Full Text:



Allain, Jean, and Robin Hickey. “Property and the Definition of Slavery.” International and Comparative Law Quarterly 61, no. 4 (October 2012): 915–38. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0020589312000450.

Bales, Kevin, and Peter T. Robbins. “‘No One Shall Be Held in Slavery or Servitude’: A Critical Analysis of International Slavery Agreements and Concepts of Slavery.” Human Rights Review 2, no. 2 (January 2001): 18–45. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12142-001-1022-6.

Bassiouni, Cherif, Daniel Rothenberg, Ethel Higonnet, Cynthia Farenga, and Augustus Sol Invictus. “Addressing International Human Trafficking in Women and Children for Commercial Sexual Exploitation in the 21st Century.” Revue Internationale de Droit Pénal 81, no. 3 (2010): 417. https://doi.org/10.3917/ridp.813.0417.

Bischoff, James L. “Forced Labour in Brazil: International Criminal Law as the Ultima Ratio Modality of Human Rights Protection.” Leiden Journal of International Law 19, no. 1 (March 2006): 151–93. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0922156505003225.

Breuil, Brenda Carina Oude, Dina Siegel, Piet van Reenen, Annemarieke Beijer, and Linda Roos. “Human Trafficking Revisited: Legal, Enforcement and Ethnographic Narratives on Sex Trafficking to Western Europe.” Trends in Organized Crime 14, no. 1 (March 2011): 30–46. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12117-011-9118-0.

Clark, Jennifer Bryson, and Sasha Poucki. The Sage Handbook of Human Trafficking and Modern Day Slavery. London: Sage Publications, 2018.

Colangelo, Anthony J. “Constitutional Limits on Extraterritorial Jurisdiction: Terrorism and the Intersection of National and International Law.” Harvard International LawJournal 48 (2007): 121–201.

Diller, Janelle M., and David A. Levy. “Child Labor, Trade and Investment: Toward the Harmonization of International Law.” American Journal of International Law 91, no. 4 (October 1997): 663–96. https://doi.org/10.2307/2998099.

Eriksen, Thomas Hylland, Ellen Balka, and Oscar Salemink, eds. A World of Insecurity: Anthropological Perspectives on Human Security. Anthropology, Culture and Society. London: Pluto Press, 2010.

Eviningrum, Sulistya, Hartiwiningsih, and Mohamad Jamin. “Developing Human Rights-Based Legal Protection Model on Victims of Child Trafficking in Indonesia.” In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Globalization of Law and Local Wisdom (ICGLOW 2019). Surakarta, Indonesia: Atlantis Press, 2019. https://doi.org/10.2991/icglow-19.2019.20.

Fang, Shelley, Phuong Nguyen, John Coverdale, and Mollie Gordon. “What Are the Human Trafficking Policies of Professional Medical Organizations?” Journal of Human Trafficking 7, no. 2 (April 3, 2021): 137–44. https://doi.org/10.1080/23322705.2019.1698895.

Fenoaltea, Stefano. “Slavery and Supervision in Comparative Perspective: A Model.” The Journal of Economic History 44, no. 3 (September 1984): 635–68. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022050700032307.

Greenbaum, V. Jordan. “Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Children in the United States.” Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care 44, no. 9 (October 2014): 245–69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cppeds.2014.07.001.

Hudson, Natalie Florea. “Gender, Human Security and the United Nations: Security Language as a Political Framework for Women.” Political Science Faculty Publications 53 (2009): 22.

Huijsmans, Roy. “Children Working Beyond Their Localities: Lao Children Working in Thailand.” Childhood 15, no. 3 (August 2008): 331–53. https://doi.org/10.1177/0907568208091667.

International Organization for Migration. Trafficking in Persons in the Caribbean Region: The Bahamas, Barbados, Guyana, Jamaica, The Netherlands Antilles, St. Lucia, Suriname. Genf: International Organization for Migration, 2005.

Jaleel, Rana M. “The Wages of Human Trafficking.” In Vulnerability and the Legal Organization of Work, edited by Martha Albertson Fineman and Jonathan W. Fineman, 1st ed., 194–215. Abingdon, Oxon [UK] ; New York : Routledge, 2017. | Series: Gender in law, culture, and society: Routledge, 2017. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315518572-15.

Johnson, David R., and David Post. “Law and Borders: The Rise of Law in Cyberspace.” Stanford Law Review 48, no. 5 (May 1996): 1367. https://doi.org/10.2307/1229390.

Knight, Cynthia Rhiannon. “Human Trafficking: A Global Tragedy in Five Acts.” Missouri State University, 2017.

Koji, T. “Emerging Hierarchy in International Human Rights and Beyond: From the Perspective of Non-Derogable Rights.” European Journal of International Law 12, no. 5 (December 1, 2001): 917–41. https://doi.org/10.1093/ejil/12.5.917.

Kotrla, K. “Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking in the United States.” Social Work 55, no. 2 (April 1, 2010): 181–87. https://doi.org/10.1093/sw/55.2.181.

McDonald, William F. “The Global Prohibition Regime Against Trafficking in Persons: Understanding the Limited Results.” In The Criminal Victimization of Immigrants, by William F. McDonald, 85–104. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69062-9_7.

Musalo, Karen. “El Salvador-- A Peace Worse Than War: Violence, Gender and a Failed Legal Response.” Yale Journal of Law and Feminism 30, no. 3 (2018): 97.

Nurhayati, Yati, Ifrani Ifrani, and M. Yasir Said. “Metodologi Normatif dan Empiris dalam Perspektif Ilmu Hukum.” Jurnal Penegakan Hukum Indonesia 2, no. 1 (January 17, 2021): 1–20. https://doi.org/10.51749/jphi.v2i1.14.

Polakoff, Erica G. “Globalization and Child Labor: Review of the Issues.” Journal of Developing Societies 23, no. 1–2 (January 2007): 259–83. https://doi.org/10.1177/0169796X0602300215.

Rahman, Majeed A. “Human Trafficking in the Era of Globalization: The Case of Trafficking in the Global Market Economy.” Transcience Journal 2, no. 1 (2011): 54–71.

Reiss, Albert J. “Co-Offending and Criminal Careers.” Crime and Justice 10 (January 1988): 117–70. https://doi.org/10.1086/449145.

Roby, Jini L., Jennifer Turley, and JoAnna Garrick Cloward. “U.S. Response to Human Trafficking: Is It Enough?” Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies 6, no. 4 (December 9, 2008): 508–25. https://doi.org/10.1080/15362940802480241.

Schauer, Edward J., and Elizabeth M. Wheaton. “Sex Trafficking Into The United States: A Literature Review.” Criminal Justice Review 31, no. 2 (June 2006): 146–69. https://doi.org/10.1177/0734016806290136.

Sullivan, Stefan. Marx for a Post-Communist Era: On Poverty, Corruption and Banality. 0 ed. Routledge, 2005. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203996164.

Thronson, David B. “Choiceless Choices: Deportation and the Parent-Child Relationship.” Nevada Law Journal 6, no. 3 (2006): 1165.

Tomažič, Tina, and Noemia Bessa Vilela. “Ongoing Criminal Activities in Cyberspace: From the Protection of Minors to the Deep Web.” Revija Za Kriminalistiko in Kriminologijo 68, no. 4 (2017): 412–23.

Wheaton, Elizabeth M., Edward J. Schauer, and Thomas V. Galli. “Economics of Human Trafficking: Economics of Trafficking.” International Migration 48, no. 4 (July 19, 2010): 114–41. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2435.2009.00592.x.

Wilt, Harmen van der. “Trafficking in Human Beings, Enslavement, Crimes Against Humanity: Unravelling the Concepts.” Chinese Journal of International Law 13, no. 2 (June 1, 2014): 297–334. https://doi.org/10.1093/chinesejil/jmu015.

Woodhead, Martin. “Psychosocial Impacts of Child Work: A Framework for Research, Monitoring and Intervention.” The International Journal of Children’s Rights 12, no. 4 (2004): 321–78. https://doi.org/10.1163/1571818043603607.

Zhidkova, Tatiana. “Globalization and the Emergence of Violent Non-State Actors: The Case of Human Trafficking.” New Global Studies 9, no. 1 (January 1, 2015): 1–25. https://doi.org/10.1515/ngs-2014-0014.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26532/ijlr.v6i1.17805


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Law Reconstruction Indexed by :

DOAJgoogle_scholarsintacrossrefMendeley onesearch  dimension

International Journal of Law Recnstruction
Faculty of Law, UnissulaCopyright of International Journal of Law Reconstruction
Jalan Kaligawe Raya KM.4, Terboyo Kulon, Genuk, E-ISSN 2775-8885 (Online)
Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia, 50112 IJLR is licensed under a